There are many ways in which teacher professional judgement can shape schooling. Teachers can participate in the development of study designs, curriculum and syllabus, and they can also participate in exam setting, exam marking and standard setting. In this way teachers perform sophisticated social roles in mediating between systems and the lifeworld of students as well as in setting and maintaining educational norms and expectations on behalf of the community. This kind of participation, where teachers both contribute to the creation of norms and learn how to teach them, is present in all systems to some extent, and highlights the important roles as moral agents and moral leaders that teachers can have. However there are currently two developments working against teachers taking on system roles as moral agents: 1) instrumental reasoning of mathematical models and 2) the post-conventional/post-traditional nature of technology based education making teacher participation problematic.
Where once curriculum and assessment were reflections of social expectation (including expectation of industry), this normative function has to some extent been superseded by uni-dimensional models of curriculum and assessment, mainly the Item Response Theory models (e.g. see Ayala, 2009; Embretson & Reise, 2000; Masters, 1982; Rasch, 1980) and its associated continuum metaphor. In education systems where Item Response Theory models becomes prevalent learning progressions are less determined by social expectation and more determined by instrumentally defined scale progression, so that curriculum begins to comprise of ‘content that scales’ instead of content that meets social expectations. Once curriculum content is comprised of ‘content that scales’, teachers’ participation in standard setting is no longer a requirement as instead of socially defined educational standards these standards can be set by way of cut-points, cut-scores and bands instrumentally and arbitrarily defined by application of Item Response Theory based algorithms.
My thesis will argue that this phenomenon can lead to various outcomes including 1) alienation of teachers’ work, 2) curriculum and assessment not addressing social expectations, 3) students alienated from society and not fully socialised, and 4) a general loss of social capital across the system. It can also be seen as very efficient and cost saving as it doesn’t require expensive teacher engagement.
Post-conventional or post-traditional nature of education
The need to develop new educational norms and expectations during a time of developments in digital technology presents another issue for teacher engagement. Beavis (2010, p. 26) articulates this well when she states that factors such as cultural heritage and identity are at play for not only the student and teacher but also the subject itself. The required moral reasoning of teachers is therefore far greater at a time where the system capacity of teachers has been greatly diminished through cutbacks etc. This leaves a vacated landscape that private sector can seek to fill (e.g Ultranet see Bajkowski, 2013), or other consortia (e.g. 21st Century Skills see Griffin, McGaw, & Care, 2012).
Not all contemporary assessments are grounded on mathematical models. For example the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) is one example of curriculum and assessment that is firmly socially grounded. The study designs for the VCE (VCE study Designs) reflect the social, cultural and economic activity of Victoria, and Victorian teachers are actively involved in its design and implementation, including exam setting and marking. The VCE also uses routine statistical techniques (standardization and normalization) to create a single score and then ATAR for students that can be used as currency in the future job and education market in Victoria and beyond. These features make VCE a highly regarded qualification but that it has such significant social buy-in will make it difficult to adapt to technology-based. Although this can be overcome with good management, good planning and sufficient resources for stakeholder engagement.
There is also some hope produced by the constellation metaphor and in the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of curriculum and assessment that is more comprehensive (e.g. Almond, Mislevy, Steinberg, Yan, & Williamson, 2015). However the establishment of good Bayesian belief networks also requires extensive experienced teacher participation, so the danger of the constellation metaphor is that instead of relying on teachers’ input for belief networks, these networks will instead by based on trawling through learning analytic data. Should this occur, my thesis is that this would also lead to alienating circumstances for teachers and students.
My thesis will develop with the view that sophisticated and social cohesive education systems have a sufficient base of morally competent teachers that are involved in the setting of curriculum and assessment, where the judgement of these teachers are informed and supported by sophisticated data systems (constellation and continuum). Of course this could potentiality bifurcate the other way, where teachers and students become increasingly alienated by technocratic systems.
Almond, R. G., Mislevy, R. J., Steinberg, L., Yan, D., & Williamson, D. (2015). Bayesian Networks in Educational Assessment. Tallahassee: Springer.
Ayala, R. J. De. (2009). The Theory and Practice of Item Response Theory. Guilford Press.
Bajkowski, B. J. (2013). News Review . Vic Auditor fails Ultranet, (March).
Beavis, C. A. (2010). English in the Digital Age: Making English Digital. English in Australia, 45(2), 21–30. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/handle/10072/37149
Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. L. Erlbaum Associates.
Griffin, P., McGaw, B., & Care, E. (Eds.). (2012). Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2324-5
Masters, G. N. (1982). A rasch model for partial credit scoring. Psychometrika, 47(2), 149–174. doi:10.1007/BF02296272
Rasch, G. (1980). Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests. Chicago: MESA PRESS.